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Pumpkin: growing and care in the open field

Pumpkin: growing and care in the open field


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Pumpkin is a very common gardening culture, cultivated not only in the southern regions, but also in the middle lane. She is loved not only for the good taste of the fruit, but also for its unpretentiousness and productivity. Self-care and cultivation of pumpkins in the open field are not difficult, therefore, if there is free space in the garden, it is quite possible to take it under this plant.

Features of growing pumpkin in different regions

Pumpkin grows well in many regions, it is grown not only in the south, but also in Central Russia, in the North-West region, in Siberia and the Urals. The cultivation of this crop in different climatic regions has its own characteristics. They are associated not only with the selection of zoned varieties, but also with the formation of bushes and rationing of the future harvest.

Moscow suburbs

Growing pumpkins in the open field in the Moscow region has its own characteristics. The cool summers combined with the high rainfall in the area do not contribute to high yields. Therefore, in this region, it is advisable to choose early and mid-early table varieties for planting, zoned for the middle lane.

For planting, you can recommend, for example, the following hard varieties:

  • Mozolevskaya.
  • Gribovskaya bush.
  • Spaghetti.
  • Gymnosperm.

Of the large-fruited pumpkins, the following have proven themselves well in the Moscow region:

  • Therapeutic.
  • Chit.
  • Volga gray.
  • Gold bowl.
  • Big Moon.

Can be grown in the Moscow region and butternut pumpkin. These varieties include:

  • Muscat.
  • T-7.
  • Candied.

To make the most of the summer heat, pumpkin is grown outdoors in seedlings. The formation of a bush also has its own characteristics. In order for the plant to form full-fledged fruits, pinch the lashes, limiting their growth, and also normalize the number of fruit ovaries on each bush. Usually pumpkin in the suburbs is formed into 1 main and 1 side stem. At the same time, 2 fruits are left on the main liana, and on the side - 1. A larger number of the bush simply will not have time to feed. To improve the taste of the fruit, the bushes stop watering a week before harvest, otherwise the pumpkin will taste watery and will not be well stored.

In the Urals

Growing pumpkins in the Urals in the open field is carried out by seedlings. The climate of this region is characterized by short and cool summers. Here, you need to be especially careful when choosing a variety and adhering to agricultural technology. Preference should be given to species with an early ripening period, such as:

  • Sweetie.
  • Countryside.
  • Shrub gold.

It is the bush pumpkin varieties that are preferable to grow in the Urals in the open field, since long climbing stems are more susceptible to adverse weather conditions. One main shoot and one lateral shoot are usually formed on the bush, leaving 1-2 fruit ovaries on each.

In Siberia

Growing pumpkins in Siberia in the open field is possible thanks to the breeding of early-maturing varieties, such as:

  • Freckle.
  • Smile.
  • Adagio.
  • Russian woman.
  • Pearl.

All these varieties are early and have a ripening period of about 90-110 days. In the conditions of a short hot Siberian summer, they have time to fully ripen. The dry climate of this region with little rainfall has a beneficial effect on the growth of this culture, since it does not like excessive moisture.

Melons in Siberia are usually formed into one stem, leaving 1-2 fruit ovaries on it for accelerated ripening. Bush forms are pinched, removing excess shoots and rationing the future harvest.

In the Leningrad region

Northwest Russia, which includes the Leningrad Region, is characterized by an unstable climate. Late spring here is replaced by rainy cool summers and long cold autumn. The air temperature is highly dependent on the wind rose and can vary significantly during the day. Despite the unfavorable climate, pumpkin cultivation in the Leningrad Region is possible even in the open field.

For planting in this region, it is recommended to use early maturing varieties with increased resistance to unfavorable climates. These include:

  • Almond 35.
  • Acorn.
  • Shrub orange.

When growing pumpkins in the open field in the Leningrad Region, the seedling method is used, and the choice of a planting site and proper agricultural technology will also play an important role.

How to grow pumpkin outdoors

Growing pumpkin in the open field and caring for it is not difficult, but it requires adherence to certain rules. Pumpkin loves warmth and sun, as well as fertile soil. In the southern regions of the country, all conditions for the normal growth of this culture are available. Planting is done with seeds. Further care for the pumpkin is carried out in minimal volumes. However, in regions with an unfavorable climate, this approach will lead to the fact that the harvest will be small or not ripen at all. Therefore, in more northern regions, the seedling method of growing is used, while reducing the period of the plant being in the open field.

Seedling method

The average growing season of pumpkin from the moment of germination to harvest is 120-140 days. In many regions of the country, the warm season lasts a much shorter period of time, so it is simply impossible to carry out a full cultivation cycle in the open field from the moment of planting to harvest. Pumpkin seeds are first germinated at home, and after the onset of suitable weather, they are transplanted into open ground.

Individual peat cups are best suited for growing seedlings. Their use allows you to avoid picking - the procedure for planting young plants, which is very stressful for them. Due to the use of individual peat cups, the pumpkin ripening period is reduced by 3-5 days, which is also important when growing it in the open field.

Preparing pumpkin seeds before planting usually consists of 3 steps:

  1. Warming up. Seeds selected for planting are immersed in hot (+ 45 ° C) water for 1.5-2 hours.
  2. Germination. Seeds are wrapped in a damp cloth or gauze and kept until pecking. This usually takes 3-3 days.
  3. Hardening. The hatched seeds are placed in the refrigerator for 3-5 days. This increases resistance to cold and temperature fluctuations.

After all the procedures carried out, the seeds are planted in peat pots filled with nutrient soil to a depth of 3-6 cm. The soil can be purchased in a specialized store or prepared independently by mixing peat, humus and river sand in equal proportions. Planting pumpkin seeds for seedlings is carried out about 3 weeks before the planned transplantation of plants in open ground. After planting the seeds, the pots are covered with a transparent film, which is periodically removed for airing. After the emergence of seedlings, it is better to keep the seedlings on the windowsill on the south side of the house. Periodically, the earth needs to be moistened. After 2-3 full (not cotyledonous) leaves appear on the plants, the seedlings are transplanted into open ground.

In a barrel

Amateur gardeners have come up with many ways to grow pumpkins, in addition to traditional ones. First of all, this concerns the use of various designs and materials that appear in everyday life. One of these methods is growing pumpkin in a barrel. This method is relevant for owners of small garden plots, since it can significantly save space for other plantings. For such an impromptu garden bed, a metal barrel that has served its time, ideally without a bottom, is suitable.

The old container should be installed in a well-lit place, since the pumpkin will not grow in the shade. After that, they arrange a kind of warm bed. The barrel is filled in layers, first with coarse organic matter (branches, large roots), then with tops, leaves, grass. It is best to put a layer of compost mixed with turf soil on top. The contents of the barrel must be well tamped. The bottom and walls must be perforated to ensure air exchange and drainage of excess moisture to the roots. A month before the planned planting, such a bed should be shed with warm water, and then with a solution of any drug containing effective microorganisms (EM drugs). Bacteria will begin to intensively decompose organic matter, enriching the soil with nutrients.

In late May or early June, 1 or 2 cups with seedlings are planted in a barrel. If by this time the contents of the container have strongly settled, it is necessary to fill it up with earth mixed with humus. Planted pots with seedlings are watered, you can also cover the plants with cut containers made of transparent plastic if night temperatures drop to low values. As they grow, the stems of the pumpkin begin to drop downward. After setting 2-3 fruits, the stems are pinched. To prevent ripening pumpkins from coming off under their own weight, they are tied up with nets or props are installed. After harvesting, the used soil can be scattered over the site or brought in together with digging into the beds.

Important! It is best to replace the nutrient soil in barrels annually.

In bags

Cultivation of pumpkin in bags is carried out using the same technology as in barrels. In this case, a metal container that has not served its life serves as a container for the nutrient soil, but black plastic garbage bags with a capacity of 100 liters. They are strong enough to support the weight of the soil along with the plant, but fill them in place with the ingredients. Moving bags of soil around the site without damaging it will be quite difficult.

The undoubted advantage of growing pumpkin, both in barrels and in bags, is the saving of space on the site due to the vertical growth of the stems. In addition, such plantings do not need weeding. The capacity with the ground serves as a kind of thermal accumulator, which heats up during the day and slowly gives off heat to the plant at night. This is very important when growing this crop in the northern regions.

Informative video about growing pumpkin and other vegetables in bags:

On insulated beds

Insulated beds are arranged in the open field relatively infrequently. Usually they are preferred to be made in greenhouses for growing cucumbers or tomatoes. However, this does not mean that such a bed cannot be made for a pumpkin. This design is a kind of multilayer cake. Large wood waste is laid out at the very bottom: chopped branches, roots. Above, a layer of smaller waste, sawdust, wood shavings are poured. Next comes a layer of material that can quickly turn into compost: tops, weeds, dry grass. Finally, a layer of nutrient soil is poured on top from a mixture of turf soil with humus.

The thickness of such a puff cake can be 0.6-0.8 m, therefore, such beds are usually made with a deepening. The layer of wood waste serves as a good thermal insulation, therefore, such beds are also called "warm".

Under the film

Often, the beds on which pumpkin or other thermophilic crops are grown are covered with a black film. This solves several problems at once:

  • Weed growth stops, there is no need for weeding.
  • The beds heat up quickly and keep warm for a long time.
  • Excessive moisture does not get into the soil.

For planting seedlings on film, small cuts are made in the right places.

Is it possible to grow a pumpkin on the balcony

Growing pumpkins on the balcony can be carried out both for decorative purposes and for harvesting. Any small-fruited varieties are suitable for this, such as:

  • Orange.
  • Baby Boo.
  • Sweet Dumpling.

Such pumpkins grow well not only in the open field, but also in containers that can be fixed to the balcony railing. Planting can be carried out both by seeds and seedlings. The care procedures are not much different from the usual ones, plantings need to be watered, periodically loosened the soil. Weaving varieties can be used to create a green hedge by stretching vertical ropes along which the stem of the pumpkin will grow.

Important! On high floors, insects are practically absent, so you will have to pollinate the plantings yourself, transferring pollen from male flowers to female flowers with a soft brush.

How to grow a pumpkin on a compost heap

A compost heap is analogous to a warmed garden bed, so it is quite possible to grow a pumpkin on it. To do this, it is enough to pour 15-20 cm of good fertile soil into a container with a compostable mass on top, in which the planting will be carried out. You can plant both bush and climbing varieties, if the location of the compost heap allows. There are no differences in the agricultural technology of growing pumpkin in this way, all the main activities (watering, pinching shoots, weeding) are carried out for such plantings in full.

How to grow a pumpkin in the country on a trellis

To save space on your garden plot, you can use the method of growing pumpkins on a trellis. Branched stems have antennae, which perfectly hold the wire stretched at a height of 1-2 m. This method is good because the fruits ripen by weight and are perfectly even. In addition, pumpkins do not have contact with the ground, so the risk of pest damage in this case is minimal.

When growing pumpkin on a trellis, the plant is formed into 2 shoots (1 main and 1 side), letting them in different directions. The number of fruit ovaries is normalized, 2 pumpkins are usually left on the main stem, and 1. The trellis should be strong enough to support the weight of the fruit. So that the pumpkins do not come off under their own weight, they are placed in cloth bags or nets, which are tied to the upper support.

Important! Ornamental small-fruited pumpkin varieties can also be grown on the trellis, using them as an impromptu green fence.

How to properly grow pumpkin in trenches

The trench method of growing pumpkin was proposed by Galina Kizima, a gardener from the Leningrad region, who has devoted many years to growing various crops in her summer cottage. In her book "The Garden Without Trouble" this method is described in great detail. The technology for growing pumpkin in the open field according to the method of G. Kizima is as follows:

  • In the fall, in the places where the pumpkin will be planted, they dig trenches with a depth of 2 shovel bayonets.
  • Compost, rotted manure, plant residues are laid in the trenches.
  • In the spring, after the snow melts, the trenches are covered with a layer of fertile soil.
  • The trench is covered with black foil.
  • After about 10 days, when the soil warms up to 15-16 ° C, the seeds are planted.
  • When shoots appear, the film above them must be carefully cut.

The film is not removed from the ground all summer. Such a bed does not require watering and fertilization; a small amount of water can be applied only during the hottest time and during the period of intensive growth. This method allows you to grow a good harvest of pumpkin even in the northern regions.

Is it possible to grow pumpkin in a greenhouse

Some gardeners use the original method of growing pumpkin in a cucumber greenhouse, without taking up space in it. To do this, 2 pumpkin bushes are planted on the south side of the greenhouse close to the wall. After the stem reaches the required length, it is taken out of the greenhouse, and then it begins to grow in the exhaust gas. At the same time, the roots remain in the greenhouse.

This method is good because it allows you to plant seedlings or seeds much earlier than usual. Care for the root zone is carried out in the greenhouse, along with other crops.The plant is formed into 1, 2 or 3 stems, depending on the growing conditions.

How to grow a huge pumpkin

The officially recorded record weight of 1 pumpkin is 1190 kg. Mathias Willemains from Belgium managed to grow such a giant fruit in 2016. Specimens weighing several hundred kilograms are far from uncommon; in many countries, they even hold championships for growing pumpkin of record weight.

To grow a large pumpkin in the country, you need not only a good climate and fertile soil. It is important to choose a fast growing large-fruited variety. Planting requires a lot of open space and sun. The plant should be well cared for, including regular feeding with easily digestible fertilizers. To get a large fruit, the plant must be formed into 1 stem and only 1 pumpkin must be left on it. After that, all excess shoots are removed, and the growth point is pinched

How to care for pumpkin outdoors

Caring for a pumpkin in the open field is simple. Several times per season, the plant is fed with an aqueous solution of slurry or bird droppings. Complex mineral fertilizers dissolved in water can also be used. The frequency and amount of watering depends on the region and growing method. Some methods even provide for the possibility of abandoning this procedure. A few weeks before harvesting, all watering is completely stopped, otherwise the shelf life of such a pumpkin will be short.

Depending on the climatic conditions and the area where the pumpkin is grown, it is formed into 1, 2 or 3 stems, leaving from 1 to 4 fruit ovaries on 1 bush. This allows you to ration the crop, make it larger.

Conclusion

Care and cultivation of pumpkins in the open field is within the power of anyone, even the most inexperienced gardener. The activities are not complicated, and some methods, after certain preparatory measures, do not require any human intervention at all. At the same time, it is possible to grow a good harvest even in areas with an unfavorable climate, which is far from ideal for growing pumpkins.


Watch the video: Pumpkin Production 101 - part 1 (September 2022).


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