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It is not uncommon for inexperienced mushroom pickers to pick up a dangerous double of a porcini mushroom, instead of a real one, which inevitably leads to a rather serious food poisoning. In small quantities, some false species are not capable of causing significant harm to health, however, there are also such twins, which can be fatal when eaten.
Are there false porcini mushrooms
Going into the forest for a porcini mushroom, you should always be on the lookout - false counterparts similar to it are very common, and many of these mushrooms are poisonous or simply inedible. In the best case, such a harvest will spoil future preparations and other dishes - the bitterness from false species quickly spreads to real boletus. It is very difficult to get rid of it even after prolonged soaking.
Toadstools, similar to a porcini mushroom, do not exist, as it is quite massive. The outlines of the former are generally much more elegant, so it is difficult to confuse them.
Important! The toxicity data for some false species can vary widely from source to source. So, for example, there are twins that are considered poisonous abroad, but in Russia they are classified as conditionally edible.
What are the names of mushrooms that look like porcini
Sometimes a false porcini mushroom is called bitterness or gall fungus, however, this is not entirely true. The term includes several similar varieties at once, which include the following:
- boletus is beautiful;
- gall mushroom;
- satanic sick;
- speckled oak;
- boletus le Gal.
In order not to confuse real and false porcini mushrooms, it is important to familiarize yourself with the main characteristics of these species and carefully study their photos.
Important! Almost all twins are toxic to one degree or another, and therefore unsuitable for human consumption.
The leg of a genuine porcini mushroom is relatively smooth and free of reticular structures
What false porcini mushrooms look like
In order not to accidentally pick up a false porcini mushroom, it is recommended not only to familiarize yourself with the names and photos of its dangerous counterparts, but also to carefully study the features of their internal structure. The color and texture of the flesh can tell if a real boletus has been found.
Important! If there is even the slightest suspicion that the found specimen is false, it is better to leave the find alone.
The satanic mushroom (lat. Boletus satanas) or the satanic mushroom is a common double of the porcini mushroom, which can grow up to 20-25 cm in diameter and 15 cm in height. His hat looks like a hemisphere and resembles a pillow. As it matures, its shape changes slightly, approaching the widespread type. The surface of the cap is smooth to the touch and dry. The color ranges from white and grayish tones to dark olive, sometimes with ocher streaks.
The thickness of the leg is on average 6-10 cm. In young pains, it is similar in shape to an egg, even a ball, but then becomes tuberous. In mature specimens, the leg is rather dense, narrowed upward.
The flesh of satanic pain is white in young specimens and yellowish in ripe ones. At the site of the incision, it changes its color - damaged fibers may turn slightly blue or acquire a reddish tint. Changes take place within five minutes. Old fruits smell unpleasant.
You can distinguish Satanic sickness by the following characteristics:
- The twin has a rather massive barrel-shaped leg.
- The hat has a rough surface and looks like velvet.
- The tubular layer of the false species is red or orange. His leg also turns red with age.
- Ripe fruit bodies smell like rotten onions.
Despite the fact that in some sources the satanic disease is indicated as conditionally edible, in no case should it be eaten.
Important! 1 g of raw pulp is enough to cause severe digestive upset.
The leg of a ripe satanic mushroom becomes scarlet, however, closer to the cap it is yellowish
Gall mushroom (Latin Tylopilus felleus), bitter mushroom or false porcini mushroom is another inedible double that has an unpleasant pulp taste. Its size is quite small - the cap reaches only 10-12 cm in diameter. It is convex in shape, hemispherical, but as it matures, its appearance changes. Older specimens have flatter caps.
The surface of the fruiting body is smooth and dry to the touch. The color of the cap is brown. Bitter has no pronounced smell.
Important! The pulp of this white mushroom double contains toxic substances, and it is also very bitter. The species is considered poisonous.
It differs from a genuine porcini mushroom in a tubular layer, which is painted in an off-white or pink tone. Also, the flesh of the fruit body on the cut becomes pink, however, the changes are quite insignificant. You need to take a closer look at it 5-8 minutes after causing damage.
The gall fungus is distinguished from a genuine porcini mushroom mainly by the appearance of its legs and cap.
Gorchak has a wider cap, and its leg is covered with a coarse mesh
The boletus is beautiful (Latin Boletus pulcherrimus), it is also called the boletus the most beautiful - a poisonous false species with a velvety hat. It can grow up to 25 cm in diameter. To the touch, it is a little dry, the color is brown with a red tint, The flesh of the boletus is dense, yellowish. The leg of the double is quite thick - about 15 cm wide.
A distinctive feature of the beautiful boletus is a red leg with a palpable mesh
Speckled oak tree (Latin Boletus erythropus) is one of the few conditionally edible counterparts of the porcini mushroom. The pulp of fruit bodies can be added to soups and stews, and this type is also suitable for preparations.
The oak tree grows on average up to 20 cm in diameter, however, its leg is rather short - only 6-10 cm. The surface of the cap is dry to the touch, slightly velvety. In shape, it resembles a crumpled pillow. The color of the cap is red-brown.
The speckled oak tree is easy to recognize by the way the edge of its cap behaves after being pressed or hit - it darkens quickly enough under pressure. Darkening of the pulp is also a characteristic sign of a false twin. If the fruit body is cut open, it will turn bluish blue.
The Dubovik's hat is quite voluminous, but does not have a clear shape
Borovik le Gal
Boletus le Gal (Latin Boletus legaliae), also legal boletus, is another poisonous counterpart of the porcini mushroom, which can grow up to 15 cm in diameter. The hat is hemispherical, smooth to the touch. The surface is painted pinkish with an admixture of orange. The boletus leg is thick, about 5-6 cm in diameter.
The flesh of this false double is pale, slightly yellow. The aroma of fruiting bodies is pleasant.
The main distinguishing feature of this species from the porcini mushroom is the presence of a fine reddish mesh on the stem.
On the cut, the boletus pulp quickly turns blue
How to distinguish a white mushroom from a false one
In order not to confuse a real white mushroom with a false one, you need to familiarize yourself with the main signs of twins. These include the following characteristics:
- The pulp of bitterness, satanic pain, and some other similar varieties changes color at the site of a cut or break, turning into brownish or reddish shades. In boletus legitimate, damaged fibers can turn blue. In the case of a real porcini mushroom, this does not happen.
- In the bitterness on the leg, a tuberous mesh is felt, which is not on the fruiting body of the edible porcini mushroom.
- A freshly cut bile mushroom on a stalk begins to produce milky juice, in contrast to white.
- Outwardly, a false double is almost always more attractive. This is explained by the fact that there are no external damages on the fruit body, since insects and animals are frightened off by the taste of the pulp.
Advice! It is better to collect young specimens that are not eaten away by worms.
Why is a false porcini mushroom dangerous?
The poisonous double of the porcini mushroom is dangerous because its pulp may contain toxic substances. They quickly penetrate into human blood and soon infect liver cells, destroying its structure. Additionally, toxic components negatively affect the nervous system and blood vessels.
False porcini mushroom poisoning
Symptoms of false white fungus poisoning may differ slightly depending on the species, however, in general, the patient's condition can be described as follows:
- During the first 24 hours after eating a double, a person may feel atypical weakness and dizziness. The condition usually improves the next day.
- After 5-10 days, signs of poisoning appear again. This time it is expressed in severe nausea, vomiting, stool disturbance. Sometimes the temperature may rise.
- If the false double contains a large amount of toxic substances, then the victim begins to hallucinate at some point.
- After eating a large amount of poisonous pulp, blood vessels, nerve endings and liver cells are damaged. Cramps of the limbs are possible.
- With a high concentration of toxic substances, cirrhosis of the liver can begin.
Advice! At the first symptoms of poisoning, you must go to a hospital or ambulance. Before the arrival of doctors, the patient is given first aid through gastric lavage.
The dangerous white mushroom double can cause irreparable damage to human health and often cause accidents. Eating a large number of false fruiting bodies can be fatal, especially if it hurts satanic - even a small piece of it poses a mortal threat. Some other types cause cirrhosis of the liver by destroying its structure. In order for a quiet hunt to go well, you need to familiarize yourself with the main distinguishing features of false doubles.
You can learn more about how to collect a real porcini mushroom from the video below: