Mokruhi - edible agaric mushrooms belonging to two genera: hroogomfus and homfidius. The name of these forest gifts is associated with a specific appearance, because the slippery caps of the mushrooms are covered with a layer of mucus.
Botanical description of mushroom
Mokruhi (Gomphídius) - large mushrooms, the height of which can be more than 10 cm, their hat reaches the same size. Depending on the species in young specimens, they are convex or conical in shape. And the "oldies" they are flat with a slightly concave center.
The pulp of different representatives of mokrukh is characterized by color diversity. It can be white-gray, bright orange, brown or pink-white, pink or red at the break.
The legs of the mushrooms are massive, thickened below, they are light cream and, like hats, mucous. On top of them there is also a ring of mucus. The dense pulp changes color from yellow (bottom) to off-white (top).
Appearing in the middle of summer, these fungi bear fruit almost to frost. There are single specimens, but more often these forest gifts grow in small families.
Plots of wetlands
Mokruhi are far from rare in coniferous or mixed forests. They can be found in moss under pines, firs or firs. Mass gathering of mushrooms, which beginners bypass mushrooms but appreciate experienced ones, falls on the horses of summer and the beginning of autumn.
Mokruhi prefer calcareous soils, like elevated places, thinned forest plantations. Often they are met in the neighborhood with oils. In Russia, they grow everywhere only in Siberia, the Far East and the North Caucasus. In European territory, mushrooms can be found less often, mainly in areas with snowy winters and hot, short summers.
Features of pine spruce
Characteristics of the species of moss
In Russia, there are only five varieties of edible wet. All of them belong to the fourth category, i.e. suitable for food only after preliminary heat treatment. All of these mushrooms will be discussed below.
Spruce or sticky mokruha has a bluish-colored hat. It is found by families in shady spruce forests or among heather. It grows more often in the north or in the center of Russia. Its flesh, although tasty, but because of the fragile texture, these mushrooms are difficult to collect, store, clean and cook.
The fungus is characterized by a significant thickness of the mucous layer on the cap and spores. He looks unpretentious: the fifteen-centimeter hat is gray-black, the spore plates are also dark. The leg is dirty white, covered with mucus, over time only a small dark ring remains from the mucus. Its flesh is tender, not darkening at a break. It has a bright yellow tint. It is considered one of the most useful mushrooms of this species, because extremely rich in amino acids and carbohydrates.
Yellow-legged (purple) moss
It is also called pine or shiny wet. It differs from other representatives of the species in the purple color of the hat with the edges curled up. It grows in pine forests in temperate climates. The eight-centimeter meaty cap of young mushrooms has a conical shape and seems to be covered with a thin cobweb. The shiny skin is purple, and eventually becomes light brown or reddish.
The meaty, fibrous five-centimeter and often curved leg has a yellow tint, and at the base it is bright orange. At the cut, the flesh turns pink, and darkens during heat treatment.
Spore plates in young specimens are covered with a film and look pink-purple, with time they acquire a dark shade. They can be easily separated from the cap. When frozen, mushrooms acquire a copper-purple color.
Her second name is mucous. Grows surrounded by firs and larch. Dark spots are clearly visible on her small hat. When cut, the mushroom turns red. In young specimens, spore plates are rare and light, then they darken.
The leg is curved, rather dense, painted off-white with yellow spots. In length, it reaches up to 8 cm. First, it is connected to the hat with a thin film, from which only a small mucous ring subsequently remains. Spore plates have an olive hue. Before eating, the mushroom requires a long boil.
Often, because of the cannon covering the light hat, it is also called fleecy. It is smooth, at the edges it is divided into shallow grooves. Orange-brown plates fall on the leg. The hat sometimes reaches a diameter of up to 10 cm. The pulp has different shades of ocher color., and when dried, acquires a brown or pink-wine color.
A flat leg with a slight thickening in the middle is painted in the same colors as the hat. The spores are dark brown. The mushroom usually grows in protected forests, in the vicinity of pine or fir. Massively appears in the fall, often in large groups.
She has an unusually bright hat. Due to the fact that its frequent neighbor is a goat, experts have an opinion that the fungus parasitizes on its mycelium. In many countries of Europe and Asia, it is considered an endangered species and is listed in the Red Book.
The size of the hat does not exceed 6 cm. First, it resembles a hemisphere with a lowered edge, and then it opens and turns purple-red from purple-pink. Spore plates are juicy and rare; they go through the color stages from white to black.
The six-centimeter leg is white on top and brown on the bottom, on it there is a ring in the form of a roller. The mushroom pulp is white, and the bottom is dark. The spores are gray. Due to the rare beauty of the combination of a pink hat and dark spore plates, it differs from other lamellar mushrooms with which this mokruha cannot be confused.
Many species of mokroh have dark hats, which are similar to a goat or an oiler. The latter on the back of the cap has a porous olive-yellow layer. Mokruhi belong to lamellar mushrooms.
It is the presence of rare white plates that become darker near the stalk that distinguishes these mushrooms from the goats that often grow in their neighborhood. In addition, young specimens are provided with a thin mucous layer. And on old mushrooms, only a thin ring remains near it.
How to recognize Mokruha mushrooms
Primary processing and methods of making moss
Wet mushrooms are boiled, fried, marinated, salted and dried. They make sauces, soups and casseroles. Mushrooms are often used as a side dish for meat or fish. They are the original ingredient for appetizers or salads.
Important! Before preparing a dish of mushrooms, they need to be thoroughly washed, cleaned of debris and peeled off the mucous film in the same way as they are done with oils.
Cooking them is not difficult. Before this, the mushrooms are boiled for a quarter of an hour. As a result of cooking, the flesh changes color to dark or purple. But this does not change its pleasant and rich mushroom aroma and taste.
From mokrukha you can cook a casserole according to the following recipe:
- Cut the prepared mushrooms into small pieces, cook in slightly salted water and carefully strain the liquid.
- Peel the potatoes and, cutting into rings, fold them into a baking dish.
- On it put half the onion rings and a layer of mushrooms.
- Salt all the ingredients, sprinkle with spices and pour a small amount of sunflower oil.
- Bake in the oven for at least half an hour.
- Then add a layer of grated cheese.
- Submit the casserole form for a few minutes in the oven to form an appetizing crust on it.
Where spruce spruce grows
The name of the mushroom "wet" does not sound too appetizing, but it is no less useful than white, boletus or butter. In mushrooms there are vitamins of groups B, E and C, they are rich in minerals, fiber. They are useful for chronic fatigue, insomnia, headaches, they can stimulate blood formation, and due to the natural antibiotic contained in the mushrooms, they have an antiviral effect.