Many gardeners love garden iris, which is easy to care for and easily tolerates wintering. Difficulties can bring only hybrid varieties. Today we will talk about the features of caring for these flowers in the fall.
About winter hardiness of irises
The most winter-hardy varieties are domestic breeding, as well as foreign, time-tested. The most vulnerable are tall plants. Most species have good frost protection with a 30-centimeter thick snow cover. In the suburbs, dwarf and medium-sized irises can winter without any shelter. Not winter, but spring frosts do more harm, since young buds can die.
To preserve non-frost-resistant varieties in regions with harsh climatic conditions, irises must be dug up like gladioli. With the onset of spring, bulbs should be planted in soil heated to 10 ° C.
Features of caring for irises in the fall
Timely preparation for winter affects the quality of wintering.
Onion varieties after flowering are recommended to be kept in dry conditions., moderately watering if necessary. Since the root system of the plant is located on the surface of the soil, a large amount of moisture threatens the appearance of dark spots on the foliage and their complete decay. In addition, the death of a flower is not excluded.
Purpose and rules for autumn trimming irises
After the bud has flowered and withered, it is removed. This process prevents the formation of seeds, the ripening of which takes a lot of energy from the plant. As a result, the number of flowers on one plant will increase, as well as repeated flowering on some types of irises.
The bush, on which there are no wilted buds, looks much more beautiful, even if the flowering has already stopped. Indeed, in irises, wilted flowers acquire a brown color, which spoils the appearance of the plant. Some varieties of iris can spread throughout the site by self-seeding, thereby creating additional difficulties for their removal in unnecessary places. To prevent self-seeding, the bushes must be trimmed.
What to do with irises after flowering
Some gardeners prefer to retain ovules in some varieties because of their attractive appearance. For example, iris of smelly and leopard lilies has beautiful seeds.
Autumn pruning requires a few simple rules:
- Removing flowers must be done with your fingers or scissors. It is important to ensure that the scissors are clean and sharp. You need to pinch or cut off the flower immediately after the bud. Both dry petals and the receptacle should be removed, since it is from this part that the ovum develops.
- On the processed stem there may be buds that have not yet opened, therefore dried flowers should be carefully removed. Some varieties are known for the fact that they quickly change colors. Such irises require frequent inspection and removal of unnecessary buds.
- After the flowering period has ended for the plant, it is necessary to remove the flower stalk, otherwise it may rot. Many species have a fleshy stem. It should be incised at the very base, leaving 2.5 cm above ground level.
- When trimming the stems, it is important to leave the green leaves intact, since the plant with their help transfers the energy necessary for wintering to the root system. Foliage should fade on its own. Wilted brown leaves should be cut at a level of 15 cm from the ground.
The places of cuts must be sprinkled with crushed charcoal.
Feeding irises in the fall
In autumn, especially after transplantation, when the plant forms a root, it needs to be fed with potassium and phosphorus products (not more than 40 g per sq. M). Fertilizing seedlings is also important for guaranteeing abundant flowering for the next season. Irises do not tolerate manuretherefore it is not recommended to use this type of fertilizer.
The use of a large number of drugs leads to an abundant growth of greenery, which affects the quality of wintering. After the plant has cut off all the leaves, it must be covered with peat or dry oak foliage. Careful care and proper feeding in moderation ensures annual lush flowering.
Planting irises in the fall
The duration of the autumn planting is about a month and a half. It is important to calculate the start time of the planting so that the iris is rooted before the onset of frost.
The advantages of autumn planting irises
Features of the vegetation of the plant affect the timing of planting. After the end of winter, plants with healthy and developed roots begin rapid leaf growth. In the summer months, there is an increase in new links with young and fragile buds that are easily damaged during planting.
Many gardeners consider the autumn months to be the most suitable period for planting. At this time, the plant has a sufficiently developed root, and the buds are already lignified and strengthened. After the transplant, the iris will take root and, when the spring thaw sets in, will immediately start growing.
How irises breed
Dates and technology of planting irises in the fall
Before planting the plant, you need to choose a suitable area, which should be open and sunny, because light is needed both in the aerial part and in the starchy root. The bed should be with a slight bias to the south side. Thus, excess moisture will go away, and the entire landing area will be evenly lit.
Irises love slightly acid loams. During digging into the ground, you must make:
- with increased soil acidity - ash or dolomite flour;
- in heavy soil - sand;
- with light sand - clay;
- To increase fertility, a rotted humus is needed.
Since nitrogen fertilizers activate the growth of greenery, preventing the plant from preparing for the winter period, it is not recommended to use them during autumn planting.
A week before the planned autumn planting, beds should be prepared so that the soil has time to settle and compact. As a result, the seedlings will not go too deep into the ground.
- Planting material must first be dried.
- With independent dividing the bush on each dividend, leave a rhizome up to 10 cm long, at least one fan of leaves and replacing buds.
- The leaves need to cut a third of the length.
- If desired, the seedling can be neutralized by placing it for a quarter of an hour in a manganese solution.
Planting pits should not be very deep so that the root neck is above the soil. After a couple of weeks, you can check the quality of the rooting of the plant. If you pull it slightly, the root system will hold the plant in the ground, preventing it from being pulled out.
Shelter of irises as the main way to prepare for winter
In the southern regions with a mild climate, where there are no severe frosts, irises do not require special preparation for winter. Otherwise, without proper shelter, the flower may die. If snow falls early and persists until spring, only young bushes can be covered, leaving winter-hardy varieties without shelter.
Very often during the summer, the topsoil is washed out by rains, exposing the roots. To protect them from vulnerability, in the autumn it is necessary to pour a layer of land, peat or humus on top.
Coniferous paws or other dry material found in the garden can serve as shelter material. It is better not to use straw or fallen leaves, prone to over-ripening, as various diseases can develop on the plant and mold may appear.
How to prepare irises for winter
Do not rush to remove the shelter with the arrival of the first thaw. When the frost returns, the plant may be harmed. If you want to supply oxygen, the shelter can be carefully rotated.
Irises look beautiful both singly and in conjunction with other colors. Not all varieties bloom in the first year after planting, so you should be patient and continue to care for the plants. For 3 to 4 years, iris will surely please with bright colors.