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Cherry trees are a horticultural symbol of Russia, but over the past half century, due to an unprecedented invasion of fungal infections, more than 2/3 of the gardens throughout the country have been destroyed, and the old famous varieties cannot cope with the pressure of diseases and pests. They are being replaced by new varieties, and the Volochaevka cherry variety has become one of the outstanding creations of breeders.
Cherry Volochaevka was obtained by a group of breeders under the leadership of A.I. Evstratov, working at the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution VSTISP (All-Russian Institute of Selection and Technology of Horticulture and Nursery).
The Institute is located in Moscow and A.I. famous for the fact that numerous varieties of cherries came out of his hands, resistant to one of the terrible troubles of cherry trees - coccomycosis, and also quite winter-hardy in the climate of the Moscow region and the entire Central region.
Attention! The Volochaevka cherry variety is unique in that it is obtained from the crossing of the most famous and ancient cherry varieties, known since the 18th-19th centuries, Vladimirskaya and Lyubskaya.
The variety was obtained back in the 80s of the last century, but due to the difficult economic and political situation in our country, it received registration in the State Register of Breeding Achievements of Russia only in 1997. The variety is officially approved for cultivation in the Central Region, but this only means that it is in this region that all the fruitful and productive properties of Volochaevka cherries will be optimally revealed. In reality, the Volochaevka variety is happily grown by gardeners throughout Russia, south of the Moscow region.
Description of culture
Cherry trees of the Volochaevka variety can be classified as medium-sized, since they reach a height of 3 - 3.5 meters.
The crown of the trees has a beautiful rounded shape, the density of dark green rather large ovoid leaves with a crenate edge is slightly higher than average.
Shoots are straight, brown in color. A tree of this variety bears fruit on last year's shoots and on bouquet branches. Young shoots of the current year bear only vegetative buds.
Judging by the many reviews of gardeners, the Volochaevka cherry fruits are quite large in size, although in the description of the originator variety, the average weight of one fruit is about 3-4 grams.
Apparently, the size of the fruits, as well as their taste, is largely determined by the climatic conditions of the growing area and the composition of the soil.
Since half of the gardeners speak of Volochaevka cherries as very tasty, sweet, and even dessert ones, others consider them the most ordinary.
The color of the fruits, as well as their juice, is characterized by a deep red color. This means that the Volochaevka cherry can rightfully be attributed to the group of morels or griots.
The flesh of the fruit is quite dense and at the same time very juicy. The small bone is easily separated from the rest of the fruit. Tasters rate the taste of Volochaevka cherries at 4.7 on a five-point scale.
The fruits contain 15.6% dry matter, 10% sugar, 1.4% acid and 22 mg /% vitamin C.
The characteristic of the Volochaevka cherry variety carries many positive aspects for amateur gardeners and especially beginners in gardening.
Winter hardiness, drought resistance
Cherry Volochaevka is distinguished by quite decent winter hardiness, at the level of one of its parents - Vladimir cherry. Trees endure frosts down to -30 ° C relatively calmly, but the buds can be damaged by recurrent spring frosts.
The drought resistance of this variety is average, however, when grown in conditions of central Russia, more is not required. And for the southern hot and arid regions, there are varieties that are more suitable for this characteristic.
Pollination, flowering period and ripening times
One of the unique features of the Volochaevka cherry variety is its self-fertility. That is, in order for the cherry to form fruits after flowering, it does not need other varieties of cherries or cherries growing nearby. In addition, bees or bumblebees or other insects are essential for cross-pollination. But in recent years, due to the increasingly complex ecological situation, bees and other insects are far from always present in household plots. A self-fertile variety of cherry Volochaevka will be able to provide you with tasty fruits in any year and in any weather conditions, regardless of the presence of pollinating insects and other cherry trees nearby.
Therefore, this variety is just a godsend for owners of small plots or those who, due to the small free space, can afford to plant only one cherry variety.
Cherry blossoms Volochaevka in May, depending on the region of cultivation, the flowering period may be shifted to the first or second half of the month.
But in terms of ripening of berries, most gardeners attribute it to mid-season varieties, some even call it mid-late.
The fact is that the fruits of this variety usually ripen in the second half of July. In the southern regions, berries ripen earlier - at the beginning of July.
Cherry Volochaevka can be called a rather early-growing variety. After all, the trees grow quite decent in size, and they begin to bear fruit as early as 4-5 years of life, when the height of the tree reaches about three meters.
Moreover, the yield of a five-year-old tree can be up to 10 kg of cherries under favorable conditions. In this respect, the Volochaevka cherry is significantly ahead of its parents.
The maximum yield of adult Volochaevka cherry trees in gardens can be up to 12-15 kg per tree.
The average lifespan of a tree is about 15 years, and in the southern regions, cherries can bear fruit for more than 20 years.
Scope of berries
The berries of the Volochaevka variety are universal in use. Since they have a dessert, pronounced cherry flavor, they are eagerly consumed fresh. But they are also good for a variety of drinks and preparations for the winter.
Disease and pest resistance
Initially, the Volochaevka cherry variety was bred as resistant to coccomycosis. Indeed, his resistance to this disease is above average. Although in especially rainy years, trees may still be affected by this disease, they recover after appropriate treatments.
The Volochaevka variety has medium resistance to other diseases and pests, and preventive spring treatments can help protect trees from trouble.
Advantages and disadvantages
|Benefits of the variety||Disadvantages of Volochaevka cherries|
|Self-fertility||Medium resistance to many diseases|
|Large and tasty berries|
Cherry Volochaevka is an unpretentious variety, but planting must be done according to all the rules in order to get the maximum from the tree that it is capable of.
In most regions of the middle lane, for which the cultivation of cherries of this variety is recommended, it is better to determine the seedling for a permanent place in the spring, around April, even before the buds open. Only residents of the southern regions can afford to plant cherries in autumn. If it was possible to get the seedling only in the autumn, then the gardeners of the middle lane are better off digging a cherry tree in a secluded place in the garden, spudding it with earth on all sides.
Choosing the right place
The ideal place for planting cherries would be the southeastern or southern slope, as illuminated as possible by the sun. Volochaevka will be able to grow in partial shade, but this will certainly not be reflected in the best way on the taste of the berries.
Groundwater should be at a considerable depth, not less than 1.5 meters. As a last resort, cherries can be planted on a small artificial mound. The soils must be well-drained and fertile. Usually, having dug a hole in advance for planting a tree, they mix the earth with sand, wood ash, humus and a complex of fertilizers, and only this mixture is then filled with the roots of the seedling.
What cultures are friends or enemies with cherries
For cherries, the neighborhood with representatives of the stone fruit family will be very favorable: cherries, plums, cherry plums, thorns. But it is better to plant peach and apricot further away.
Honeysuckle will be a good neighbor of shrubs, but it is better to plant raspberries, currants and gooseberries at a considerable distance from cherries, since they have many common enemies. For the same reason, the neighborhood with vegetables from the nightshade family will be unfavorable: peppers, tomatoes, eggplants.
Large trees with a huge root system can shade the cherry and take away nutrients from it, so cherries are planted at a great distance from birch, spruce, oak, linden, poplar. It is also better to plant an apple tree and a pear at a distance of at least 10 meters from the cherry.
But mountain ash, hawthorn, elderberry and grapes will be good neighbors for cherries.
Selection and preparation of planting material
Choose seedlings only in garden centers, where you will be provided with detailed information about the variety, type of rootstock, age.
The root system should be well developed with a sufficient number of fine suction roots. There should be no damage to the bark on the shoots.
Place the cherry roots in the root solution 6-8 hours before planting.
Important! If you are planting several trees, then the distance between them should be at least 3.5 meters.
It is advisable to dig a hole for planting in advance, even in the fall. On heavy clay soils, it is necessary to arrange a drainage layer of gravel or sand at the bottom of the planting pit with a height of at least 8-10 cm. In the center of the pit, a column is first strengthened, then straightened roots of a cherry seedling are placed around it. They begin to gradually fill up with the prepared land mixture. The root collar and the graft site of the grafted seedlings should not be deepened into the ground, so it is better to leave them slightly at the top. After filling the hole, pour 1-2 buckets of water over the planting site and compact the soil between the roots.
It is better to immediately mulch the planting site with organic matter and maintain this layer by adding mulch 1-2 times per season.
Follow-up care of the culture
In the middle lane, additional watering of Volochaevka cherries is required only during the first year after planting or if the weather is particularly dry and hot.
Top dressing should be started only from the beginning of the fruiting period. Usually they are carried out twice a season - during the flowering period or immediately after and during the period of fruit formation. You can fertilize with humus or a complex of mineral fertilizers with microelements in the form of chelates.
Attention! The near-trunk circle of cherries with a diameter of about a meter must be weeded regularly from weeds or kept constantly under mulch.
Cherry pruning consists of sanitary, aimed at removing dry and damaged branches, and shaping. It is most convenient to form the crown of the tree in the form of a ball, cutting out all the branches that thicken the crown.
In late autumn, tree trunks are coated with garden paint to protect them from sunburn and rodents.
Advice! If a variety of rodents are actively behaving in your area, then it is advisable to wrap the bole of a young seedling in the first few winters with roofing material or plastic bottles cut along the length.
In the conditions of the middle zone, no additional protection for the winter period is provided for Volochaevka cherries.
Pests and diseases
|Problem type||Way to fight|
|Fungal diseases||It is safer to use biologics. An effective mixture of Trichodermine and Baxis (1: 1). Process all summer after setting the temperature around + 12 ° + 15 ° С|
In the fall, after harvesting, spray the trees with 1% Bordeaux liquid
|Pests||In the fall, after the first frost, they are sprayed with a 5% urea solution, and starting from early spring every 25 days they are treated with Fitoverm, Akarin biological products|
Try planting Volochaevka cherries in your garden and with minimal care you will harvest a large harvest of sweet and large berries every year, from which you can make many delicious preparations for the winter.
Reviews of gardeners about Volochaevka cherry agree on one thing - everyone is satisfied with the yield and taste of the berries of this variety. There are some complaints about the stability and size of the berries, but a lot depends on the growing conditions of the cherry.
Oleg, 46 years old, Oryol region
On his site he grew many varieties of cherries, both old and new. I consider Volochaevka to be one of the most reliable varieties of medium ripening times. It does not require any additional shelter for the winter and regularly pleases us with a bountiful harvest.
Irina, 35 years old, Moscow region
Volochaevskaya cherry has been growing at the dacha for several years. Very tasty, you can't take that away from her, only this year all the leaves were beaten like hail. It turned out to be cocomycosis. Apparently, the cold rainy spring, and the summer affected. We will save as soon as we take off the harvest.
Elena, 42 years old, Tula region
I noticed that the Volochaevka variety has just a huge harvest, and sometimes suddenly there are not many berries on the tree. Apparently it depends on the weather. The berries are, of course, very tasty, fleshy and rich. In the spring, I treat it several times with biological fungicides, and so far there seem to be no problems with diseases. And the rest of the variety is very unpretentious.